Oftentimes people say one thing but mean another, but there are also certain words with conflicting definitions that do this on their own. Named after the two-faced Roman god Janus, these words are also known as contranyms or antagonyms and are their own opposites. A commonly cited example is “cleave,” which can refer to splitting something apart or uniting two things. How did this jumble happen?
History provides several answers. Sometimes a word had a specific meaning that become broader over time. It has also happened the other way, where a word that was once broad gained a more specific meaning that resulted in two contradictory definitions.
“Oversight” is another good example. It originally referred to watchful supervision, but through an extension of meaning, people started using it to refer to the thing that supervision eliminates. Listed below are a series of Janus words — are you familiar with one we missed? Let us know.
To secure, or to flee
Heading to a destination, or restrained from movement
To connect, or to break or collapse
To fasten, or detach
A common practice, or a special treatment
To add fine particles, or to remove them
Quick, or stuck or made stable
Excellent, or acceptable or good enough
To repair, or to castrate Garnish To furnish, as with food preparation, or to take away, as with wages
An advantage provided to ensure equality, or a disadvantage that prevents equal achievement
To support, or to impede Overlook To supervise, or to neglect
Monitoring, or failing to oversee
An immobile mass of stone or figuratively similar phenomenon, or a shaking or unsettling movement or action
To present, or to conceal
To patronize a business in order to purchase something, or to sell something
Invisible, or obvious
To decorate, or to remove excess from
A journey, or a stumble